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HISTORICAL RESEARCH

Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt. Kozma C.

BASIC SCIENCE

Idiopathic-type scoliosis is not exclusive to bipedalism. Gorman KF, Breden F.

Spinal growth modulation with use of a tether in an immature porcine model. Newton PO, Upasani VV, Farnsworth CL, Oka R, Chambers RC, Dwek J, Kim JR, Perry A, Mahar AT.

Estrogen cross-talk with the melatonin signaling pathway in human osteoblasts derived from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Letellier K, Azeddine B, Parent S, Labelle H, Rompré PH, Moreau A, Moldovan F.


RESEARCH

Can 'sniff nasal inspiratory pressure' determine severity of scoliosis in paediatric population? Ramappa M.

[Digital skeletal age and histological evaluation for residual spine growth potential in idiopathic scoliosis.] Qiu Y, Wang SF, Zhu ZZ, Zhu F, Ma ZL, Xia CW.

Scoliosis: a straightforward approach to diagnosis and management. Smith JR, Sciubba DM, Samdani AF.

Craniofacial Features of Children with Spinal Deformities. Segatto E, Lippold C, Andras V.

Postural imbalance in non-treated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis at different periods of progression. Beaulieu M, Toulotte C, Gatto L, Rivard CH, Teasdale N, Simoneau M, Allard P.

Preference assessment of recruitment into a randomized trial for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Dolan LA, Sabesan V, Weinstein SL, Spratt KF.

Assessing the rotation of the spinal cord in idiopathic scoliosis: a preliminary report of MRI feasibility. Dohn P, Vialle R, Thévenin-Lemoine C, Balu M, Lenoir T, Abelin K.

Discrepancy between radiographic shoulder balance and cosmetic shoulder balance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with double thoracic curve. Qiu XS, Ma WW, Li WG, Wang B, Yu Y, Zhu ZZ, Qian BP, Zhu F, Sun X, Ng BK, Cheng JC, Qiu Y.

Observer reliability between juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in measurement of stable Cobb's angle. Modi HN, Chen T, Suh SW, Mehta S, Srinivasalu S, Yang JH, Song HR.

Impaired dynamic balance control in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials. Lao ML, Chow DH, Guo X, Cheng JC, Holmes AD.

Using the Sauvegrain method to predict peak height velocity in boys and girls. Hans SD, Sanders JO, Cooperman DR.

Posture and equilibrium in orthopedic and rheumatologic diseases. Missaoui B, Portero P, Bendaya S, Hanktie O, Thoumie P.

[Development of the personalized finite element model of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and its significance] Wang Z, Liu Z, Wang Z, Wang C.

Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis: CT and MR findings. Bomfim RC, Távora DG, Nakayama M, Gama RL.

Neurological symptoms and deficits in adults with scoliosis who present to a surgical clinic: incidence and association with the choice of operative versus nonoperative management. Smith JS, Fu KM, Urban P, Shaffrey CI.

The influence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis on the dynamic adaptive behaviour. Bruyneel AV, Chavet P, Bollini G, Allard P, Mesure S.

The association between melatonin signaling dysfunction and idiopathic scoliosis. Shangguan L, Fan X, Luo Z.

Experience with an online prospective database on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: development and implementation. Arlet V, Shilt J, Bersusky E, Abel M, Ouellet JA, Evans D, Menon KV, Kandziora F, Shen F, Lamartina C, Adams M, Reddi V.

Clinical monitoring of torso deformities in scoliosis using structured splines models. Ajemba PO, Durdle NG, James Raso V. Low bone mineral status in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Li XF, Li H, Liu ZD, Dai LY.
Lateral steps reveal adaptive biomechanical strategies in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Bruyneel AV, Chavet P, Bollini G, Allard P, Berton E, Mesure S.

Effects of short-term brace wearing on the pendulum-like mechanism of walking in healthy subjects. Mahaudens P, Banse X, Detrembleur C.

The practice of physical and sporting activity in teenagers with idiopathic scoliosis is related to the curve type. Meyer C, Haumont T, Gauchard GC, Leheup B, Lascombes P, Perrin PP.

Computer-generated index for evaluation of idiopathic scoliosis in digital chest images: a comparison with digital measurement. Tang FH, Chan LW, Lau HP, Tsui PY, Cheung CW.

Recent advances in the aetiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Cheung KM, Wang T, Qiu GX, Luk KD

Guidelines on "Standard of management of idiopathic scoliosis with corrective braces in everyday clinics and in clinical research": SOSORT Consensus 2008


Stefano Negrini, Theodoros B Grivas, Tomasz Kotwicki, Manuel Rigo, Fabio Zaina The Sforzesco brace can replace cast in the correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A controlled prospective cohort study. Stefano Negrini, Salvatore Atanasio, Francesco Negrini, Fabio Zaina, Gianfranco Marchini

Magnetic resonance imaging of the erector spinae muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: implication for scoliotic deformities. Gnahoua Zoabli, Pierre A Mathieu, Carl-Eric Aubin
 
Reliability and development of a new classification of lumbosacral spondylolisthesis
Jean-Marc Mac-Thiong, Hubert Labelle, Stefan Parent, Michael Timothy Hresko, Vedat Deviren, Mark Weidenbaum, members of the Spinal Deformity Study Group

Juvenile idiopathic scoliosis treated with posterior arthrodesis and segmental pedicle screw instrumentation before the age of 9 years: a 5-year follow-up
Ahmet Yilmaz Sarlak, Halil Atmaca, Levent Buluc, Bilgehan Tosun, Resul Musaoglu

Assessment of the centre of pressure pattern and moments about S2 in scoliotic subjects during normal walking Nachiappan Chockalingam, Surendra Bandi, Aziz Rahmatalla, Peter H Dangerfield, El-Nasri Ahmed Scoliosis 2008, 3:10 (12 August 2008)

Trunk asymmetry in juveniles Theodoros B Grivas, Elias S Vasiliadis, Constantinos Mihas, Georgios Triantafyllopoulos, Angelos Kaspiris Scoliosis 2008, 3:13 (23 September 2008)


Smart garment for trunk posture monitoring: A preliminary study Wai Yin Wong, Man Sang Wong Scoliosis 2008, 3:7 (20 May 2008)

REVIEW
The pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: review of the literature. Kouwenhoven JW, Castelein RM.

Vertebral rotation measurement: a summary and comparison of common radiographic and CT methods. Gabrielle C Lam, Doug L Hill, Lawrence H Le, Jim V Raso, Edmond H Lou

Rate of complications in scoliosis surgery – a systematic review of the Pub Med literature Hans-Rudolf Weiss, Deborah Goodall Scoliosis 2008, 3:9 (5 August 2008)

Relative shortening and functional tethering of spinal cord in adolescent scoliosis – Result of asynchronous neuro-osseous growth, summary of an electronic focus group debate of the IBSE Winnie CW Chu, Wynnie MW Lam, Bobby KW Ng, Lam Tze-ping, Kwong-man Lee, Xia Guo, Jack CY Cheng, R Geoffrey Burwell, Peter H Dangerfield, Tim Jaspan Scoliosis 2008, 3:8 (27 June 2008)

Surgical treatment of scoliosis: a review of techniques currently applied Toru Maruyama, Katsushi Takeshita Scoliosis 2008, 3:6 (18 April 2008)

Adult degenerative scoliosis: a review. Birknes JK, White AP, Albert TJ, Shaffrey CI, Harrop JS. Degenerative scoliosis is a complex disorder. The primary surgical aims are to decompress the neural elements, normalize both sagittal balance and coronal and rotational deformity, fixate to the sacrum/ilium when appropriate, and optimize conditions for osteogenesis and fusion.

Idiopathic scoliosis. Angevine PD, Deutsch H.
IS is typically treated with anterior or posterior spinal fusion; treatment of very young patients is complicated by the need to allow growth to continue while controlling the scoliosis.

Congenital thoracolumbar spine deformities. Aliabadi H, Grant G.
Advances in the field of spinal deformity correction now allow us to better treat individuals with these types of deformities. It is important for the practicing neurosurgeon to be knowledgeable of surgical and nonsurgical treatments of patients with congenital thoracolumbar spinal deformities in order to better understand which patients will ultimately progress and necessitate surgical treatment.

Noninvasive measurement and screening techniques for spinal deformities. Harrop JS, Birknes J, Shaffrey CI.
The use of a detailed physical examination, serial examinations, and radiographic means serve well to document curve presence and monitor progression.

Classification systems for adolescent and adult scoliosis. Smith JS, Shaffrey CI, Kuntz C 4th, Mummaneni PV.
The importance of scoliosis classification schemes lies in their ability to standardize communication among health care providers. With regard to the classification of adolescent scoliosis, the Lenke system has addressed many of the significant limitations of the King system and is now the standard classification scheme. Classification schemes for adult scoliosis have been reported only recently, and each offers specific advantages (the simple pathogenesis-based system of Aebi, the strong clinical relevance of the Schwab system, and the richly descriptive Scoliosis Research Society system). This article highlights the salient features of currently used scoliosis classification systems.
Bracing for scoliosis. Heary RF, Bono CM, Kumar S.
By far, the best indication for bracing is treatment of the skeletally immature adolescent patient with an idiopathic flexible curve of less than 45 degrees magnitude.

Low bone mineral status in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Li XF, Li H, Liu ZD, Dai LY.
The effect of the eccentric tension-compression environments on BMD, the correlation of BMD with scoliosis parameters and the effect of bracing on BMD should be investigated further in prospective, randomized and longitudinal follow-up studies.

Imaging of painful scoliosis. Davies A, Saifuddin A.
The aim of this review is to illustrate the causes of a painful scoliosis in children, adolescents and adults. The treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) according to present evidence.

A systematic review. Weiss HR, Goodall D.
Due to the presence of evidence to support conservative treatments, a plan to compose a RCT for conservative treatment options seems unethical. But it is also important to conclude that the evidence for conservative treatments is weak in number and length.


AETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS

Do adolescents with a severe idiopathic scoliosis have higher locations of the conus medullaris than healthy adolescents? Sun X, Chu WC, Cheng JC, Zhu F, Zhu Z, Yu Y, Wang B, Qiu Y.
The mean and the distribution of the conus locations were similar for AIS patients and the controls. No significant associations of the conus position with curve severity and with curve patterns were found, indicating that the conus location might not be involved in the pathogenesis and curve progression of AIS



GENETICS 

[Association of PAX1 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to congenital scoliosis in Chinese Han population.] Fei Q, Wu ZH, Yuan SM, Wang H, Zhou X, Liu Z, Song HF, Yin RF, Wang YP, Qiu GX.

Promoter polymorphism of matrilin-1 gene predisposes to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in a Chinese population. Chen Z, Tang NL, Cao X, Qiao D, Yi L, Cheng JC, Qiu Y.

[Genetic polymorphism of growth hormone e in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.] Qiu XS, Deng LS, Yang XE, Zheng ZY, Qiu Y.


Five new consanguineous families with horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis and novel ROBO3 mutations. Abu-Amero KK, Dhalaan HA, Zayed ZA, Hellani A, Bosley TM.
The ROBO3 gene does not appear to have an obvious hot spot area for mutations; therefore, we recommend sequencing all exons and exon-intron boundaries in patients with clinical and/or radiologic features of HGPPS.

Genetics of scoliosis. Heary RF, Madhavan K.
Based on family pedigree and genetic studies, the proposed pattern of inheritance for markers of scoliosis are expected to be autosomal dominant, X-linked, multigene, or multifactorial. This is further complicated by locus heterogeneity, allele heterogeneity, and carrier states found in normal individuals. Although none of these modes of inheritance has been definitively proven, it appears that a multifactorial mode of inheritance with variable penetrance is the most likely method.

Lack of association between the promoter polymorphism of the MTNR1A gene and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Qiu XS, Tang NL, Yeung HY, Cheng JC, Qiu Y. Promoter polymorphism of the MTNR1A gene was not associated with the occurrence or curve severity of AIS. The MTNR1A gene may not be involved in the etiopathogenesis of AIS.

Association study of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase polymorphisms with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in Han Chinese. Wang H, Wu Z, Zhuang Q, Fei Q, Zhang J, Liu Y, Wang Y, Ding Y, Qiu G. TPH1 polymorphisms were associated with AIS but not with gender and Cobb angle in AIS patients. AANAT polymorphisms were not associated with AIS. These results suggested that TPH1 was an AIS predisposition gene, and there was a close relationship between the dyssynthesis of melatonin and AIS.


EVALUATION

TRACE (Trunk Aesthetic Clinical Evaluation), a routine clinical tool to evaluate aesthetics in scoliosis patients: development from the Aesthetic Index (AI) and repeatability. Fabio Zaina, Stefano Negrini, Salvatore Atanasio

Idiopathic scoliosis and breast asymmetry. Denoel C, Ismael Aguirre MF, Bianco G, Mahaudens PH, Vanwijck R, Garson S, Sinna R, Debrun A.

A strong correlation is found between clinical parameters, anthropomorphic measurements and 3D scan analysis, suggesting that a meticulous clinical examination is sufficient to evaluate breast asymmetry in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. A patient who is properly diagnosed and informed of her skeletal deformity and breast asymmetry is more likely to have realistic expectations from breast surgery.

Radiographic versus ultrasound evaluation of the Risser Grade in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a prospective study of 46 patients. Thaler M, Kaufmann G, Steingruber I, Mayr E, Liebensteiner M, Bach C.
Our findings suggest that ultrasound can be applied as an alternative method to X-ray evaluation in Risser Grade determination. It should be routinely used in clinical practice to reduce the patients exposure to radiation.

Lateral steps reveal adaptive biomechanical strategies in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Bruyneel AV, Chavet P, Bollini G, Allard P, Berton E, Mesure S.
In scoliotic subjects, lateral stepping prompts specific dynamic behaviour affecting both limbs, in order to maintain balance during movement despite spinal deformation. This stepping task could be used in future studies to identify specific motor strategies.

Validity and reliability of active shape models for the estimation of cobb angle in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Allen S, Parent E, Khorasani M, Hill DL, Lou E, Raso JV.

The automated method was reliable for moderate-sized curves, and did detect vertebrae in larger curves with a modified training set of larger curves.

OUTCOME MEASURES
Age-gender matched comparison of SRS instrument scores between adult deformity and normal adults: are all SRS domains disease specific? Baldus C, Bridwell KH, Harrast J, Edwards C 2nd, Glassman S, Horton W, Lenke LG, Lowe T, Mardjetko S, Ondra S, Schwab F, Shaffrey C.
Our findings confirm the SRS instrument has excellent discriminate validity in the adult population. It appears to be disease-specific in the domains of pain, appearance and activity in adult spinal deformity patients who have not had prior surgery.

SPORT 
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and exercising: is there truly a liaison? Kenanidis E, Potoupnis ME, Papavasiliou KA, Sayegh FE, Kapetanos GA.
Our results demonstrate that systematic exercising is probably not associated with the development of AIS. Actively participating in sports activities doesn't seem to affect the degree of the main scoliotic curve either.

The role of exercising in a pair of female monozygotic (high-class athletes) twins discordant for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Potoupnis ME, Kenanidis E, Papavasiliou KA, Kapetanos GA. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis seems to be a multifactorial skeletal disorder. The role of exercising and heredity in its development remain controversial.

SECONDARY SCOLIOSIS

A rare cause of neuromuscular scoliosis: Alexander disease. Ozturk C, Tezer M, Karatoprak O, Hamzaoglu A.

Hemihyperplasia-multiple lipomatosis syndrome (HHML): a challenge in spinal care. Schulte TL, Liljenqvist U, Görgens H, Hackenberg L, Bullmann V, Tinschert S.

Assessing functional outcomes of children with muscular dystrophy and scoliosis: the Muscular Dystrophy Spine Questionnaire. Wright JG, Smith PL, Owen JL, Fehlings D.

Is scoliosis an issue for giving growth hormone to children with Prader-Willi syndrome? Diene G, de Gauzy JS, Tauber M.

SHOX gene is expressed in vertebral body growth plates in idiopathic and congenital
scoliosis: Implications for the etiology of scoliosis in turner syndrome. Day G, Szvetko A, Griffiths L, McPhee IB, Tuffley J, Labrom R, Askin G, Woodland P, McClosky E, Torode I, Tomlinson F.

[Patient with scoliosis and neurofibromas. Is the spine involved in Recklinghausen disease?] Schuh A, Hönle W.

Impingement of spinal cord by dislocated rib in dystrophic scoliosis secondary to neurofibromatosis type 1: radiological signs and management strategies. Yalcin N, Bar-on E, Yazici M.

Convexity of scoliosis related to handedness in identical twin boys with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy: a case report. Werner BC, Skalsky AJ, McDonald CM, Han JJ.

Polyneuropathy, scoliosis, tall stature, and oligodontia represent novel features of the interstitial 6p deletion phenotype. Zirn B, Hempel M, Hahn A, Neubauer B, Wagenstaller J, Rivera-Bruguès N, Strom TM, Köhler A.

Five new consanguineous families with horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis and novel ROBO3 mutations. Abu-Amero KK, Dhalaan HA, Zayed ZA, Hellani A, Bosley TM.

Examination of the newborn with congenital scoliosis: focus on the physical. Brand MC. Differential diagnosis of muscular hypotonia in infants: the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VI). Voermans NC, van Engelen BG.

Scoliosis in Prader-Willi syndrome: prevalence, effects of age, gender, body mass index, lean body mass and genotype. de Lind van Wijngaarden RF, de Klerk LW, Festen DA, Hokken-Koelega AC.

Predictors of progression in patients with Friedreich ataxia. La Pean A, Jeffries N, Grow C, Ravina B, Di Prospero NA.
Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age at diagnosis, which may incorporate other genetic and environmental factors, is more important than GAA length in predicting cardiomyopathy, scoliosis, and disease progression

Syringomyelia and Chiari's malformation in a child with scoliosis Weijenberg A, Brouwer OF, Hoving EW.
In children with structural scoliosis, ancillary investigation in the way of neuroimaging of the spinal cord should be considered to exclude underlying spinal cord pathology, even in the absence of neurological abnormalities.

Syringomyelia-associated scoliosis with and without the Chiari I malformation. Akhtar OH, Rowe DE. Most orthopaedic surgeons agree that a syrinx should be evaluated neurosurgically before any planned spinal arthrodesis to decrease the risk of neurologic injury connected with surgical correction. The indications for arthrodesis in these patients compared with those with idiopathic curves are evolving.

Cohen syndrome resulting from a novel large intragenic COH1 deletion segregating in an isolated Greek island population. Bugiani M, Gyftodimou Y, Tsimpouka P, Lamantea E, Katzaki E, d'Adamo P, Nakou S, Georgoudi N, Grigoriadou M, Tsina E, Kabolis N, Milani D, Pandelia E, Kokotas H, Gasparini P, Giannoulia-Karantana A, Renieri A, Zeviani M, Petersen MB.
The discovery of this mutation has made carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis possible in this population

Scoliosis in patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome. Odent T, Accadbled F, Koureas G, Cournot M, Moine A, Diene G, Molinas C, Pinto G, Tauber M, Gomes B, de Gauzy JS, Glorion C.

Scoliosis is a major concern for patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, and a regular (annual) systematic back examination is mandated. The role of growth-hormone treatment on the natural history of scoliosis could not be determined, and careful monitoring during treatment is recommended.

Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mineral Density Are Lower in Older than in Younger Females with Rett Syndrome. Motil KJ, Ellis KJ, Barrish JO, Caeg E, Glaze DG.
his study identified associations among low bone mineral density, fractures, and scoliosis,
and underscored the need for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MECP2 in the regulation of bone mineral metabolism.

CONGENITAL SCOLIOSIS
Decreased body mass index and restrictive lung disease in congenital thoracic scoliosis. Bowen RE, Scaduto AA, Banuelos S.
Decreased pulmonary function compromise strongly correlates to low BMI in patients with congenital thoracic scoliosis. When considering moderate to severe restrictive lung disease as defined by FVC%, patients are at much higher risk of being significantly underweight. Body mass index is another important sign of thoracic insufficiency syndrome in these patients.

Cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in patients with congenital scoliosis. Park WW, Suh KT, Kim JI, Ku JG, Lee HS, Kim SJ, Kim IJ, Kim YK, Lee JS.
From this study, we could find the metabolic abnormalities of brain in patients with congenital scoliosis and suggest the possible role of voxel-based analysis of brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

Lung function asymmetry in children with congenital and infantile scoliosis. Redding G, Song K, Inscore S, Effmann E, Campbell R.
Asymmetric ventilation and perfusion between the right and left lungs occurs in more than half of the children with severe congenital and infantile thoracic scoliosis. However, the severity of lung function asymmetry does not relate to Cobb angle measurements. Asymmetry in lung function is influenced by deformity of the chest wall in multiple dimensions, and cannot be ascertained by chest radiographs alone.

Congenital scoliosis, supernumerary nipples and spina bifida occulta. Panigrahi I, Saxena A, Marwaha RK.


UNCONVENTIONAL TREATMENTS 

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated by spinal manipulation: a case study. Chen KC, Chiu EH.
Chiropractic treatment was associated with a reduction in the degree of curvature of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in this case, after half a year of conventional medical treatment had failed to stop curve progression. This suggests that in at least some severe and progressive cases of scoliosis, chiropractic treatment including spinal manipulation may decrease the need for surgery.

SCHOOL SCREENING

[Screening of scoliosis in a school population of 8 to 12 years in the province of Granada (Spain)] Zurita Ortega F, Moreno Lorenzo C, Ruiz Rodríguez L, Martínez Martínez A, Zurita Ortega A, Castro Sánchez AM.
Children at risk identified in an urban scoliosis school screening program: a new model. Kapoor M, Laham SG, Sawyer JR.



EXERCICES

The effect of myofascial release (MFR) on an adult with idiopathic scoliosis. LeBauer A, Brtalik R, Stowe K.

Specific exercises reduce brace prescription in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a prospective controlled cohort study with worst-case analysis. Negrini S, Zaina F, Romano M, Negrini A, Parzini S.
These data confirm the effectiveness of exercises in patients with scoliosis who are at high risk of progression. Compared with non-adapted exercises, a specific and personalized treatment (SEAS) appears to be more effective.

Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with quantified trunk rotational strength training: a pilot study. McIntire KL, Asher MA, Burton DC, Liu W.
Quantified trunk rotational strength training significantly increased strength. It was not effective for curves measuring 50 to 60 degrees. It appeared to help stabilize curves in the 20 to 40-degree ranges for 8 months, but not for 24 months. Periodic additional supervised strength training may help the technique to remain effective, although additional experimentation will be necessary to determine this.

BRACES 

The flexible Triac-Brace for conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. An alternative treatment option? Zeh A, Planert M, Klima S, Hein W, Wohlrab D.
We do not recommend treatment of thoracic or double curves with the Triac-Brace. Larger studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness in lumbar curves. The improved wearing
comfort is a potential advantage.

Study of the pressures applied by a Chêneau brace for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pham VM, Houilliez A, Schill A, Carpentier A, Herbaux B, Thevenon A.
Even though the TekScan system does not provide direct information on the correction of spinal curvature, it appears to be a useful tool in the treatment of scoliotic patients. Strap adjustment clearly influences the applied pressures - particularly those on the rib cage. During activity, there is a natural tendency to decrease the pressure; this justifies efforts to maintain strap tensions in general and during day wear in particular.

The effect of time on qualitative compliance in brace treatment for AIS. Mak I, Lou E, Raso JV, Hill DL, Parent E, Mahood JK, Moreau MJ, Hedden D.
In daytime wear, a significant decrease in force over time was found. Most of the decrease occurred within hours 1 and 2 of brace wear. There was no significant decrease during night wear. There were no significant correlations between force decline and outcome.

Efficacy of a new computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture orthosis in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Kessler JI.
This preliminary study suggests that the new Los Angeles brace is effective in the treatment of scoliosis in girls, while avoiding some obstacles involved in traditional bracing.

Effects of short-term brace wearing on the pendulum-like mechanism of walking in healthy subjects. Mahaudens P, Banse X, Detrembleur C.
Our results showed a decrease in pelvis and shoulder motion, an increase in external work, and an alteration in pendulum-like mechanism of walking when wearing the brace. However, no significant difference was observed in total mechanical work, electromyographic activity and energy cost. The loss of efficiency of this pendulum mechanism could be due to the reduction of pelvis and shoulder motion brought about by the brace.

Bracing has no effect on standing balance in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Sadeghi H, Allard P, Barbier F, Gatto L, Chavet P, Rivard CH, Hinse S, Simoneau M.
The time-dependent parameters used in this study did not prove useful in differentiating between in-brace and out-of-brace conditions. Spectral analysis highlighted increased stiffness in the antero-posterior direction and less control in the medio-lateral axis in standing balance between in-brace and out-of-brace conditions in AIS.

Rehabilitation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: results of exercises and bracing from a series of clinical studies. Europa Medicophysica-SIMFER 2007 Award Winner. Negrini S, Atanasio S, Zaina F, Romano M.
With an efficient management of data collection, it is possible to develop a set of studies aimed at verifying the efficacy of clinical daily rehabilitation approaches.


ADULT SCOLIOSIS
 

Unusual case of secondary scoliosis in a 20-year-old man. Messerschmitt PJ, Stambough JL.

OSTEOPOROSIS AND METABOLIC ALTERATIONS

Does scoliosis causes low bone mass? A comparative study between siblings. Sadat-Ali M, Al-Othman A, Bubshait D, Al-Dakheel D.
Our study indicates that the scoliosis causes osteopenia and osteoporosis among girls while their siblings with normal spine remain with normal bone mass.

Bone mineral accrual in osteopenic and non-osteopenic girls with idiopathic scoliosis during bracing treatment. Qiu Y, Sun X, Cheng JC, Zhu F, Li W, Zhu Z, Wang B, Yu Y.
It is concluded that nearly all of AIS girls had positive bone mineral accrual at LS and FN during over-1-year brace treatment. Brace treatment and the initial bone mineral status may not play important roles in the BMD accumulation. Growth potential of AIS patients is one of the key factors influencing bone mineral accrual during brace treatment.

Changes of selenium, copper, and zinc content in hair and serum of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Dastych M, Cienciala J, Krbec M.
Various changes in the content of trace elements in biological samples taken from patients with idiopathic scoliosis are not accidental. What might bring about a shift in our knowledge is speciation of various forms of trace elements in the organism in relation to idiopathic scoliosis.

CASE REPORTS

Congenital scoliosis in monozygotic twins: case report and review of possible factors contributing to its development. Angelos Kaspiris, Theodoros B Grivas, Hans-Rudolf Weiss Adult scoliosis can be reduced through specific SEAS exercises: a case report

Alessandra Negrini, Silvana Parzini, Maria Gabriella Negrini, Michele Romano, Salvatore Atanasio, Fabio Zaina, Stefano Negrini


Cauda Equina compression in Achondroplastic Dwarf. Is complex anterior and posterior surgical intervention necessary? George S Sapkas, Konstantinos Kateros, Stamatios A Papadakis, Michael Papadakis, George A Machairas


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